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Jacob 4-6: Substantive Textual Variants between Manuscripts and Editions

Skousen, Royal. "Jacob 4-6: Substantive Textual Variants between Manuscripts and Editions." In The Allegory of the Olive Tree: The Olive, The Bible, and Jacob 5. Provo, Ut.: FARMS, 1994.

This computerized collation of Jacob 4–6 is based on the original manuscript (where extant), the printer’s manuscript, the first three editions of the Book of Mormon (1830, 1837, and
1840), and the 1981 edition of the Book of Mormon. The base text for this collation is the 1981 edition; all substantive variants between the 1981 edition and the other five sources are shown. The collation ignores accidental variants (spelling variation, capitalization, and punctuation that make no difference in meaning).

Recent work on the Wilford Wood fragments of the original manuscript have led to the discovery of 11 fragments from Jacob 4–6, the only portions of the original manuscript of these chapters known to exist. These fragments come from two different types of paper, which implies that these fragments come from two different gatherings of sheets. A fragment at the end of Jacob 6 gives page number 111, which allows us to determine the probable pagination for all these fragments from Jacob 4–6:

 

 

Pages Verses

Number of Fragments

101–2 4:3–5, 4:13–14

2

107–8 5:46–48, 5:57–58,60

3

109–10 5:69–70, 5:77–6:0

3

111–12 6:11–7:6, 7:11–18

4

 

 

These few fragments do not provide any evidence of change in the Book of Mormon text. In a number of instances, however, they do provide support for readings
found in the printer’s manuscript and the 1830 edition that were changed in later editions of the Book of Mormon.

In the following collation, the various forms of a given variant appear in bold, surrounded by square brackets [ ] and separated by a vertical slash |. Each form is followed by a space and a list of the sources having that form. Single numbers and letters are used to represent the various sources:

 

 

0 original
manuscript (where extant)
1 printer’s manuscript
A 1830
edition
B 1837
edition
C 1840
edition
Q 1981 edition

 

 

Thus [was 1A | is BCQ] means that the word was occurs in the printer’s manuscript and the 1830 edition; in the other three editions was is replaced by is. If there is only a blank space before the source listing, then the form is completely lacking in those sources. Thus [ye 1 | ABCQ] means that ye occurs in the printer’s manuscript but is missing in all four printed editions included in this collation. Underlining is used to represent changes made in the printer’s manuscript by a later corrector, not Oliver Cowdery. All but a few of these changes were made by Joseph Smith for the 1837 edition and are found in his hand. A question mark after 0 means that the assumption of how the original manuscript read is based
on indirect evidence, such as spacing considerations and scribal tendencies.

Certain symbols are used to represent the text of either the original or the printer’s manuscript:

 

|x|

x has been inserted between words

^

insertion
mark that appears in the text

slash x slash

x has been inserted above the
line of text

slash x slash

x has been inserted below the
line of text

< x >

x has been deleted by crossout

<%x%>

x has been deleted by erasure

{x | y}

x has been overwritten by y

{x}

x has been partially overwritten
by x

hyphenation
mark

x(-)

the
letter x is missing a stroke

x(+)

the
letter x has an extra stroke

[
]

text
is completely illegible

[x]

x is partially legible

[x | y]

the
letter may be x or y, with x preferred

(
)

a
lacuna (a portion of the manuscript is missing)

(x)

x is partially missing due to a
lacuna

 

 

 

JACOB 4–6

 

CHAPTER [III 1ABC | 4Q] NOW behold, it came to pass that I, Jacob, having ministered much unto my people in word, (and I cannot write but [ | a |  1 | a ABCQ] little of my words, because of the difficulty of engraving our words upon plates) and we know that the things which we write upon plates must remain; (2) But whatsoever things we write upon anything save it be upon plates must perish and vanish away; but we can write a few words upon plates, which will give our children, and also our beloved brethren, a small degree of
knowledge concerning us, or concerning their fathers—(3) Now in this thing we do rejoice; and we labor diligently to engraven these words upon plates, hoping that our beloved brethren and our children will receive them with thankful hearts, and look upon them that they may learn with joy and not with sorrow, neither with contempt, concerning their first parents. (4) For, for this intent have we written these things, that they may know that we knew of Christ, and we had a hope of his glory many hundred years before his coming; and not only we ourselves had a hope of his glory, but also all the holy prophets which were before us. (5) Behold, they believed in Christ and worshiped the Father in his name, and also we worship the Father in his name. And for this intent we keep the law of Moses, it pointing our souls to him; and for this cause it is sanctified unto us for righteousness, even as it was accounted unto Abraham in the wilderness to be obedient unto the commands of God in offering up his son Isaac, which [was 1A | is BCQ] a similitude of God and his Only  Begotten Son. (6) Wherefore, we search the prophets, and we have many revelations and the spirit of prophecy; and having all these witnesses we obtain a hope, and our faith becometh unshaken, insomuch that we truly can command in the name of Jesus and the very trees obey us, or the mountains, or the waves of the sea. (7) Nevertheless, the Lord God [sheweth 1ABC | showeth Q] us our weakness that we may know that it is by his grace, and his great condescensions unto the children of men, that we have power to do these things. (8) Behold, great and marvelous are the works of the Lord. How unsearchable are the depths of the mysteries of him; and it is impossible that man should find out all his ways. And no man knoweth of his ways save it be revealed unto him; wherefore, brethren, despise not the revelations of God. (9) For behold, by the power of his word man came upon the face of the earth, which earth was created by the power of his word. Wherefore, if God being able to speak and the world was, and to speak and man was [^created/ 1 | created ABCQ], O then, why not able to command the earth, or the workmanship of his hands upon the face of it, according to his will and pleasure? (10) Wherefore, brethren, seek not to counsel the Lord, but to take counsel from his hand. For behold, ye yourselves know that he counseleth in wisdom, and in justice, and in great mercy, over all his works. (11) Wherefore, beloved [^brethren/ 1 | brethren ABCQ], be reconciled unto him through the atonement of Christ, his Only Begotten Son, [that 1A | and BCQ] ye may obtain a resurrection, according to the power of the resurrection which is in Christ, and be presented as the first‑fruits of Christ unto God, having faith, and obtained a good hope of glory in him before he manifesteth himself in the flesh. (12) And now, beloved, marvel not that I tell you these things; for why not speak of the atonement of Christ, and attain to a perfect knowledge of him, as to attain to the knowledge of a resurrection and the world to come? (13) Behold, my brethren, he that prophesieth, let him prophesy to the understanding of men; for the Spirit speaketh the truth and lieth not. Wherefore, it speaketh of things as they really are, and of things as they really will be; wherefore, these things are manifested unto us plainly, for the salvation of our souls. But behold, we are not witnesses alone in these things; for God also spake them unto prophets of old. (14) But behold, the Jews were a stiffnecked people; and they despised the words of plainness, and killed the prophets, and sought for things that they could not understand. Wherefore, because of their blindness, which blindness came by looking beyond the mark, they must needs fall; for God hath taken away his plainness from them, and delivered unto them many things which they cannot understand, because they desired it. And because they desired it God hath done it, that they may stumble. (15) And now I, Jacob, am led on by the Spirit unto prophesying; for I perceive by the workings of the Spirit which is in me, that by the stumbling of the Jews they will reject the stone upon which they might build and have safe foundation. (16) But behold, according to the scriptures, this stone shall become the great, and the last, and the only sure foundation, upon which the Jews can build. (17) And now, my beloved, how is it possible that these, after having rejected the sure foundation, can ever build upon it, that it may become the head of their corner? (18) Behold, my beloved brethren, I will unfold this mystery unto you; if I do not, by any means, get shaken from my firmness in the Spirit, and stumble because of my over anxiety for you.

[
1ABC | CHAPTER 5Q]
 BEHOLD, my
brethren, do ye not remember to have read the words of the prophet Zenos, which [ 1ABC | he Q] spake unto the house of
Israel, saying: (2) Hearken, O ye house of Israel, and hear the words of me,
a prophet of the Lord. (3) For behold, thus saith the Lord, I will liken
thee, O house of Israel, like unto a tame olive‑tree, which a man took
and nourished in his vineyard; and it grew, and waxed old, and began to decay.
(4) And it came to pass that the master of the vineyard went forth, and he
saw that his olive‑tree began to decay; and he [<sayeth> sai{ | d}/ 1 | sayeth
A | said BCQ]
: I will prune it, and dig about it, and nourish it, that
perhaps it may shoot forth young and tender branches, and it perish not.
(5) And it came to pass that he pruned it, and digged about it, and
nourished it according to his word. (6) And it came to pass that after many
days it began to put forth somewhat a little, young and tender branches; but
behold, the main top thereof began to perish. (7) And it came to pass that
the master of the vineyard saw it, and he [<sayeth> said/ 1 | sayeth A | said BCQ] unto his servant: It grieveth me that I
should lose this tree; wherefore, go and pluck the branches from a wild olive‑tree,
and bring them hither unto me; and we will pluck off those main branches which
are beginning to wither away, and we will cast them into the fire that they may
be burned. (8) And behold, saith the Lord of the vineyard, I take away many
of these young and tender branches, and I will graft them whithersoever I will;
and it mattereth not that if it so be that the root of this tree will perish, I
may preserve the fruit thereof unto myself; wherefore, I will take these young
and tender branches, and I will graft them whithersoever I will. (9) Take
thou the branches of the wild olive‑tree, and graft them in, in the stead
thereof; and these which I have plucked off I will cast into the fire and burn
them, that they may not cumber the ground of my vineyard. (10) And it came
to pass that the servant of the Lord of the vineyard [done
1A | did BCQ]
 according to the word of
the Lord of the vineyard, and grafted in the branches of the wild olive‑tree.
(11) And the Lord of the vineyard caused that it should be digged about, and
pruned, and nourished, saying unto his servant: It grieveth me that I should
lose this tree; wherefore, that perhaps I might preserve the roots thereof that
they perish not, that I might preserve them unto myself, I have done this
thing. (12) Wherefore, go thy way; watch the tree, and nourish it, according
to my words. (13) And these will I place in the [ni ‑thermost 1 | nethermost ABCQ] part of my vineyard,
whithersoever I will, it mattereth not unto thee; and I do it that I may
preserve unto myself the natural branches of the tree; and also, that I may lay
up fruit thereof against the season, unto myself; for it grieveth me that I
should lose this tree and the fruit thereof. (14) And it came to pass that
the Lord of the vineyard went his way, and hid the natural branches of the tame
olive‑tree in the [nithermost
1 | nethermost ABCQ]
 parts of the vineyard, some in one and some in another,
according to his will and pleasure. (15) And it came to pass that a long
time passed away, and the Lord of the vineyard [<sayeth> said/ 1 | sayeth A | said BCQ] unto his servant: Come, let us go down into the vineyard, that we may labor in
the vineyard. (16) And it came to pass that the Lord of the vineyard, and
also the servant, went down into the vineyard to labor. And it came to pass
that the servant [<sayeth> said/ 1 | sayeth A | said BCQ] unto his master: Behold, look here;
behold the tree. (17) And it came to pass that the Lord of the vineyard
looked and beheld the tree in the which the wild olive branches had been
grafted; and it had [sprang 1ABC | sprung
Q]
 forth and [began 1ABC | begun Q] to bear fruit. And he beheld that it was good; and the fruit thereof was like
unto the natural fruit. (18) And he [<sayeth> said/ 1 | sayeth A | said BCQ] unto the servant: Behold, the branches
of the wild tree [ hath/
1 | hath ABC | have Q]
 taken hold of the moisture of the root thereof, that the
root thereof hath brought forth much strength; and because of the much strength
of the root thereof the wild branches [<hath> have/ 1 | hath A | have BCQ] brought forth tame fruit. Now, if we had
not grafted in these branches, the tree thereof would have perished. And now,
behold, I shall lay up much fruit, which the tree thereof hath brought forth;
and the fruit thereof I shall lay up against the season, unto mine own self.
(19) And it came to pass that the Lord of the vineyard [<sayeth> said/ 1 | sayeth A | said BCQ] unto the servant: Come, let us go to the [nithermost
1 | nethermost ABCQ] [parts 1 | part ABCQ]
 of the vineyard, and behold if the
natural branches of the tree [hath
1ABC | have Q]
 not brought forth much fruit also, that I may lay up of the
fruit thereof against the season, unto mine own self. (20) And it came to
pass that they went forth whither the master [^of the vineyard/ 1 | of the vineyard A | BCQ] had hid the natural
branches of the tree, and he [<sa^yeth> said/ 1 | sayeth A | said BCQ] unto the servant: Behold these; and he
beheld the first that it had brought forth much fruit; and he beheld also that
it was good. And he [<sayeth> said/ 1 | sayeth A | said BCQ] unto the servant: Take of the fruit
thereof, and lay it up against the season, that I may preserve it unto mine own
self; for behold, [<sayeth> said/ 1 | sayeth A | said BCQ] he, this long time have I nourished it,
and it hath brought forth much [^fruit/
1 | fruit ABCQ]
. (21) And it came to pass that the servant [sayeth 1A | said BCQ] unto his master:
How comest thou hither to plant this tree, or this branch of the tree? For
behold, it was the poorest spot in all the land of [thy 1ABQ | the C] vineyard. (22) And the Lord of the vineyard [s<ayet>said/ 1 | sayeth A | said BCQ] unto him: Counsel me not; I knew that it was a poor
spot of ground; wherefore, I said unto thee, I have nourished it this long time,
and thou beholdest that it hath brought forth much fruit. (23) And it came
to pass that the Lord of the vineyard [<sayeth> said/ 1 | sayeth A | said BCQ] unto his servant: Look hither; behold I
have planted another branch [^of the
{h | tr}ee/ 1 | of the tree ABCQ]
 also; and thou knowest that this spot of
ground was poorer [then 1 | than ABCQ] the first. But, behold the tree. I have nourished it this long time, and it
hath brought forth much fruit; therefore, gather it, and lay it up against the
season, that I may preserve it unto mine own self. (24) And it came to pass
that the Lord of the vineyard [<sayeth> said/ 1 | sayeth A | said BCQ] again unto his servant: Look hither, and
behold another branch also, which I have planted; behold that I have nourished [ 1 | it ABCQ] also, and it hath brought
forth fruit. (25) And he [s<ayeth> said/ 1 | sayeth A | said BCQ] unto the servant: Look hither and behold
the last. Behold, this have I planted in a good spot of ground; and I have
nourished it this long time, and only a part of the tree hath brought forth
tame fruit, and the other part of the tree hath brought forth wild fruit;
behold, I have nourished this tree like unto the others. (26) And it came to
pass that the Lord of the vineyard [<sayeth> said/ 1|sayeth A|said BCQ] unto the servant: Pluck off the branches
that have not brought forth good fruit, and cast them into the fire.
(27) But behold, the servant [<sayeth> said/ 1 | sayeth A | said BCQ] unto him: Let us prune it, and dig about it, and nourish it a little longer,
that perhaps it may bring forth good fruit unto thee, that thou canst lay it up
against the season. (28) And it came to pass that the Lord of the vineyard
and the servant of the Lord of the vineyard did nourish all the fruit of the
vineyard. (29) And it came to pass that a long time had passed away, and the
Lord of the vineyard [<sayeth> said/ 1 | sayeth A | said BCQ] unto his servant: Come, let us go down [in 1 | into ABCQ] the vineyard, that we
may labor again in the vineyard. For behold, the time draweth near, and the end
soon cometh; wherefore, I must lay up fruit against the season, unto mine own
self. (30) And it came to pass that the Lord of the vineyard and the servant
went down into the vineyard; and they came to the tree whose natural branches
had been broken off, and the wild branches had been grafted in; and behold all
sorts of fruit did cumber the tree. (31) And it came to pass that the Lord
of the vineyard did taste of the fruit, every sort according to its number. And
the Lord of the vineyard [sa <‑it^h> sai(‑)d/ 1 | saith A | said BCQ]: Behold, this long time have we
nourished this tree, and I have laid up unto myself against the season much
fruit. (32) But behold, this time it hath brought forth much fruit, and
there is none of it which is good. And behold, there are all kinds of bad
fruit; and it profiteth me nothing, notwithstanding all our labor; and now it
grieveth me that I should lose this tree. (33) And the Lord of the vineyard [sayeth 1A | said BCQ] unto the servant:
What shall we do unto the tree, that I may preserve again good fruit thereof
unto mine own self? (34) And the servant [<sayeth> said/ 1 | sayeth A | said BCQ] unto his master: Behold, because thou didst graft in the branches of the wild
olive‑tree they have nourished the roots, that they are alive and they
have not perished; wherefore thou beholdest that they are yet good. (35) And
it came to pass that the Lord of the vineyard [<sayeth> said/ 1 | sayeth A | said BCQ] unto his servant: The tree profiteth me nothing, and the roots thereof [profiteth 1ABC | profit Q] me nothing so
long as it shall bring forth evil fruit. (36) Nevertheless, I know that the
roots are good, and for mine own purpose I have preserved them; and because of
their much strength they have hitherto brought forth, from the wild branches,
good fruit. (37) But behold, the wild branches have [ grown/ 1 | grown ABCQ] and have [overran 1ABC | overrun Q] the roots thereof; and because that the
wild branches have overcome the roots thereof it hath brought forth much evil
fruit; and because that it hath brought forth so much evil fruit thou [beheldest 1 | beholdest ABCQ] that it
beginneth to perish; and it will soon become ripened, that it may be cast into
the fire, except we should do something for it to preserve it. (38) And it
came to pass that the Lord of the vineyard [sayeth
1A | said BCQ]
 unto his servant: Let us go down into the [nithermost 1 | nethermost ABCQ] parts of the vineyard, and behold if
the natural branches have also brought forth evil fruit. (39) And it came to
pass that they went down into the [nither
‑most 1 | nethermost ABCQ]
 parts of the vineyard. And it came to pass
that they beheld that the fruit of the natural branches had become corrupt
also; yea, the first and the second and also the last; and they had all become
corrupt. (40) And the wild fruit of the last had overcome that part of the
tree which brought forth good fruit, even that the branch had withered away and
died. (41) And it came to pass that the Lord of the vineyard wept, and [<sayeth> said/ 1 | sayeth A | said BCQ] unto the servant: What could I have done more for my
vineyard? (42) Behold, I knew that all the fruit of the vineyard, save it
were these, had become corrupted. And now these which have once brought forth
good fruit have also become corrupted; and now all the trees of my vineyard are
good for nothing save it be to be hewn down and cast into the fire. (43) And
behold this last, whose branch hath withered away, I did plant in a good spot
of ground; yea, even that which was choice unto me above all other parts of the
land of my vineyard. (44) And thou [beh{o | e}ldest
1 | beheldest ABCQ]
 that I also cut down that which cumbered this spot of
ground, that I might plant this tree in the stead thereof. (45) And thou [beh{o |e}ldest 1 | beheldest
ABCQ]
 that a part thereof brought forth good fruit, and [the 1 | a ABCQ] part thereof brought
forth wild fruit; and because [<th[a]t> 1 | that ABC | Q] I plucked not the branches thereof and cast them into the
fire, behold, they have overcome the good branch that it [<ha^th> has/ 1 | hath ABCQ] withered away. (46) And now, behold, notwithstanding all the care which we
have taken of my vineyard, the trees thereof [<hath> have/ 1 | hath AB | have CQ] become
corrupted, that they bring forth no good fruit; and these I [e^ had/ 1 | had ABCQ] [hope |d| 1 | hope AB | hoped CQ] to
preserve, to have laid up fruit thereof against the season, unto mine own self.
But, behold, they have become like unto the wild olive‑tree, and they are
of no worth but to be hewn down and cast into the fire; and it grieveth me that
I should lose them. (47) But what could I have done more in my vineyard?
Have I slackened mine hand, that I have not nourished it? Nay, I have nourished
it, and I have digged [ 0?A | ^about/ 1 | about BCQ] it, and I have pruned it, and I have dunged it; and I have
stretched forth mine hand almost all the day long, and the end draweth nigh.
And it grieveth me that I should hew down all the trees of my vineyard, and
cast them into the fire that they should be burned. Who is it that [<hath> ha{s | s}/ 1 | hath A | has BCQ] corrupted my vineyard? (48) And it came to pass that
the servant [<sayeth> said/ 1 | sayeth A | said BCQ] unto his master: Is it not the loftiness
of thy vineyard—[<hat^h> has/ 1 | Hath A | Has B | Have C | have Q] not the branches thereof [overcame 1A | overcome BCQ] the roots
which are good? And because [<t[hat]> 1 | that A | BCQ] the branches have [overc{[a] | o}me
1 | overcame A | overcome BCQ]
 the roots thereof, [( r) 0 | <for> 1 | For A | BCQ] behold
they grew faster [than 0ABCQ | then 1] the strength of the roots [<t[h]e[r]e[o]f> 1 | thereof A | BCQ], taking strength unto themselves. Behold, I say, is not
this the cause that the trees of thy vineyard [hath 0A | <hath> have/ 1 | have BCQ] become corrupted? (49) And it came to pass that the Lord of the vineyard [<sayeth> sa| i |d/ 1 | sayeth A | said BCQ] unto the servant: Let us go to and hew down the trees
of the vineyard and cast them into the fire, that they shall not cumber the
ground of my vineyard, for I have done all. What could I have done more for my
vineyard? (50) But, behold, the servant [<saith> said/ 1 | saith A | said BCQ] unto the Lord of the vineyard: Spare it a
little longer. (51) And the Lord [<saith> said/ 1 | saith A | said BCQ]: Yea, I will spare it a little longer,
for it grieveth me that I should lose the trees of my vineyard.
(52) Wherefore, let us take of the branches of these which I have planted in
the [nithermost 1 | nethermost ABCQ] parts of my vineyard, and let us graft them into the tree from whence they
came; and let us pluck from the tree those branches whose fruit is most bitter,
and graft in the natural branches of the tree in the stead thereof. (53) And
this will I do that the tree may not perish, that, perhaps, I may preserve unto
myself the roots thereof for mine own purpose. (54) And, behold, the roots
of the natural branches of the tree which I planted whithersoever I would are
yet alive; wherefore, that I may preserve them also for mine own purpose, I
will take of the branches of this tree, and I will graft them in unto them.
Yea, I will graft in unto them the branches of their mother tree, that I may
preserve the roots also unto mine own self, that when they shall be
sufficiently strong [<t[hat]> 1 | that A | BCQ] perhaps they may bring forth good fruit unto me, and I [^may/ 1 | may ABCQ] yet have glory in
the fruit of my vineyard. (55) And it came to pass that they took from the
natural tree which had become wild, and grafted in unto the natural trees,
which also had become wild. (56) And they also took of the natural trees
which had become wild, and grafted into their mother tree. (57) And the Lord
of the vineyard [s<ayeth> said/ 1 | sayeth A | said BCQ] unto the servant: Pluck not the wild
branches from the trees, save it be those [ ^
which/ 1 | which ABCQ]
 are most bitter; and in them ye shall graft according
to that which I have said. (58) And we will nourish again the trees of the
vineyard, and we will trim up the branches thereof; and we will pluck from the
trees those branches which are ripened, that must perish, and cast them into
the fire. (59) And this I do that, perhaps, the roots thereof may take strength
because of their goodness; and because of the [ change/ 1 | change ABCQ] of the branches,
that the good may overcome the evil. (60) And because that I have preserved
the natural branches and the roots thereof, and that I have grafted in the
natural branches again into their mother tree, and have preserved the roots of
their mother tree, that, perhaps, the trees of my vineyard may bring forth
again good fruit; and that I may have joy again in the fruit of my vineyard,
and, perhaps, that I may rejoice exceedingly that I have preserved the roots
and the branches of the first fruit—(61) Wherefore, go to, and call
servants, that we may labor diligently with our [mights 1ABC | might Q] in the vineyard, that we may prepare the way,
that I may bring forth again the natural fruit, which natural fruit is good and
the most precious above all other fruit. (62) Wherefore, let us go to and
labor with our [mights 1ABC | might Q] this last time, for behold the end draweth nigh, and this is for the last time
that I shall prune my vineyard. (63) Graft in the branches; begin at the
last that they may be first, and that the first may be last, and dig about the
trees, both old and young, the first and the last; and the last and the first,
that all may be nourished once again for the last time. (64) Wherefore, dig
about them, and prune them, and dung them once more, for the last time, for the
end draweth [nigh
1 | nigh ABCQ]
. And if it [so be
1ABC | be so Q]
 that these last grafts shall grow, and bring forth the
natural fruit, then shall ye prepare the way for them, that they may grow.
(65) And as they begin to grow ye shall clear away the branches which bring
forth bitter fruit, according to the strength of the good and the size thereof;
and ye shall not clear away the bad [<&^ the ^sis^e the^reof & ye^ shall ^not clear a^way t(‑)h(‑)>
1 | ABCQ] [ | ther | ‑eof/ 1 | thereof ABCQ] [all at once/ 1 | all at once
ABCQ]
[lest the roots thereof
should/ 1 | lest the roots thereof should ABCQ]
 be too strong for the graft,
and the graft thereof shall perish, and I lose the trees of my vineyard.
(66) For it grieveth me that I should lose the trees of my vineyard;
wherefore ye shall clear away the bad according as the good shall grow, that
the root and the top may be equal in strength, until the good shall overcome
the bad, and the bad be hewn down and cast into the fire, that they cumber not
the ground of my vineyard; and thus will I sweep away the bad out of my
vineyard. (67) And the branches of the natural tree will I graft in again
into the natural tree; (68) And the branches of the natural tree will I
graft into the natural branches of the [l
1 |  ABCQ]
 tree; and thus will I bring them together again, that they shall
bring forth the natural fruit, and they shall be one. (69) And [ / the 1 | the ABCQ] bad shall be cast away, yea, even out of all the land of my vineyard; for
behold, only this once will I prune my vineyard. (70) And it came to pass
that the Lord of the vineyard sent his servant; and the servant went and did as
the Lord had commanded him, and brought other servants; and they were few.
(71) And the Lord of the vineyard [<sa^ith> said/ 1 | saith A | said BCQ] unto [
them/ 1 | them ABCQ]
: Go to, and labor in the vineyard, with your [mights 1ABC | might Q]. For behold, this
is the last time that I shall nourish my vineyard; for the end is nigh at hand,
and the season [ speedily/
1 | speedily ABCQ]
 cometh; and if ye labor with your [mights 1ABC | might Q] with me ye shall have joy in the fruit [ 1 |  ABCQ] which I shall lay
up [^ unto/ 1 | unto ABCQ] myself against the time which will soon come. (72) And it came to pass that
the servants did go [<t[o] i[t]> 1 | to it A |  BCQ] and labor with their mights; and the
Lord of the vineyard labored also with them; and they did obey the commandments
of the Lord of the vineyard in all things. (73) And there began to be the
natural fruit again in the vineyard; and the natural branches began to grow and
thrive exceedingly; and the wild branches began to be plucked off and to be
cast away; and they did keep the root and the top thereof equal, according to
the strength thereof. (74) And thus they labored, with all diligence,
according to the commandments of the Lord of the vineyard, even until the bad
had been cast away out of the vineyard, and the Lord had preserved unto himself
that the trees had become again the natural fruit; and they became like unto
one body; and the [fr ‑uit 1 | fruit
ABC | fruits Q]
 were equal; and the Lord of the vineyard had preserved unto
himself the natural fruit, which was most precious unto him from the beginning.
(75) And it came to pass that when the Lord of the vineyard saw that his
fruit was good, and that his vineyard was no more corrupt, he [calle{t[h] | d} 1 | calleth A | called BCQ] up his servants, and [<sayeth> said/ 1 | sayeth A | said BCQ] unto them: Behold, for this last time have we nourished my vineyard; and thou
beholdest that I have done according to my will; and I have preserved the
natural fruit, that it is good, even like as it was in the beginning. And
blessed art thou; for because [
<t[h]at>/ 1 | that A |  BCQ]
 ye have been
diligent in laboring with me in my vineyard, and have kept my commandments, and [<hath> have/ 1 | hath A | have BCQ] brought unto me again the natural fruit, that my
vineyard is no more corrupted, and the bad is cast away, behold ye shall have
joy with me because of the fruit of my vineyard. (76) For behold, for a long
time [^will/ 1 | will ABCQ] I lay up
of the fruit of my vineyard unto mine own self against the season, which
speedily cometh; and for the last time have I nourished my vineyard, and pruned
it, and dug about it, and dunged it; wherefore I will lay up unto mine own self
of the fruit, for a long time, according to that which I have spoken.
(77) And when the time cometh that evil fruit shall again come into my
vineyard, then will I cause the good and the bad to be gathered; and the good
will I preserve unto myself, and the bad will I cast away into its own place.
And then cometh the season and the end; and my vineyard will I cause to be burned with fire.

CHAPTER [IIII
1 | IV ABC | 6 Q]
 AND now, [^behold/
1 | behold ABCQ]
, my brethren, as I said unto you that I would prophesy,
behold, this is my prophecy—that the things which this [^Prophet/ 1 | prophet ABCQ] Zenos
spake, concerning the house of Israel, in the which he likened them unto a tame
olive‑tree, must surely come to pass. (2) And [in 1ABC |  Q] the day that he shall set his hand again the second
time to recover his people, is the day, yea, even the last time, that the
servants of the Lord shall go forth in his power, to nourish and prune his
vineyard; and after that the end soon cometh. (3) And how blessed are they
who have labored diligently in his vineyard; and how cursed are they [<which> who/ 1 | which A | who BCQ] shall be cast out into their own place! And the world
shall be burned with fire. (4) And how merciful is our God unto us, for he
remembereth the house of Israel, both roots and branches; and he stretches forth
his hands unto them all the day long; and they are a stiffnecked and a
gainsaying people; but as many as will not harden their hearts shall be saved
in the kingdom of God. (5) Wherefore, my beloved brethren, I beseech of you
in words of soberness that ye would repent, and come with full purpose of
heart, and cleave unto God as he cleaveth unto you. And while his arm of mercy
is extended towards you in the light of the day, harden not your hearts.
(6) Yea, today, if ye will hear his voice, harden not your hearts; for why
will ye die? (7) For behold, after [<that> 1 | that A |  BCQ] ye have been nourished by the good word of God all the day
long, will ye bring forth evil fruit, that ye must be hewn down and cast into
the fire? (8) Behold, will ye reject these words? Will ye reject the words
of the prophets; and will ye reject all the words which have been spoken
concerning Christ, after [<th[a]t> 1 | that A |  BCQ] so many have spoken concerning him; and deny the good word
of Christ, and the power of God, and the gift of the Holy Ghost, and quench the
Holy Spirit, and make a mock of the great plan of redemption, which hath been
laid for you? (9) Know ye not that if ye will do these things, that the
power of the redemption and the resurrection, which is in Christ, will bring you
to stand with shame and awful guilt before the bar of God? (10) And
according to the power of justice, for justice cannot be denied, [<t[ha]t> 1 | That A |  BCQ] ye must go away into [th{e | a}t
1 | that ABCQ]
 lake of fire and brimstone, whose flames are unquenchable, and
whose smoke ascendeth up forever and ever, which lake of fire and brimstone is
endless torment. (11) O then, my beloved brethren, repent ye, and enter [ye 01 |  ABCQ] in at the [strait 01Q | straight ABC] gate, and
continue in the way which is narrow, until ye shall obtain eternal life.
(12) O be wise; what can I say more? (13) Finally, I bid you farewell,
until I shall meet you before the [^pleasing/
0? | pleasing 1ABCQ]
 bar of God, which bar striketh the wicked with awful
dread and fear. Amen.

 

NOTES ON THE SUBSTANTIVE

 

The following symbols are used to show changes from
one text to another:

T1> T2

the
change from one text (T1) to another (T2); the specific differences are shown in
italics, and only the changed portions in T2 are shown

^

the
italicized text in T2 has been inserted
here in T1

Ø

the
italicized text in T1 has been deleted
in T2

slash x slash

supralinear insertion of x

< x >

deletion
of x

I. Changes in the
chapter system: For the 1879 edition, Orson
Pratt broke up the larger chapters of the original text. Thus the original chapter III is split
up into chapters 4 and 5. This
collation therefore includes both chapters 4 and 5. Chapter 6 (originally
chapter IV) is also included because it contains Jacob’s commentary on Zenos’s allegory.

II. Indirect
evidence for insertion in the original manuscript (O) and copied correctly in
producing the printer’s manuscript (P)

6:13
 
 
until I shall meet you
before the ^ bar of God > pleasing
[There
is no room for pleasing in O except
by supralinear insertion. Oliver
Cowdery (OC) probably first wrote the more expected expression “before the bar of God”, which he then corrected by
pleasing.]

III. Initial
error by OC in transcribing from O to P, corrected immediately or soon thereafter by OC to conform to O

A. Initial
error makes sense

4:1 and I
cannot write but ^ little of my words > a
4:9
 
wherefore
if God being able to speak and the world was and to speak and man was ^ O then
why not able to command the earth > created
5:18 behold the branches of
the wild tree have taken hold of the
moisture of the root thereof > hath
5:20
 
and it came to pass
that they went forth whither the master ^ had hid the natural branches of the
tree > of the vineyard
5:20 and it hath brought
forth much ^ > fruit
5:23 behold I have planted
another branch ^ also > of the tree
5:37 but behold the wild branches
have grew and have overran the roots
thereof > grown
5:54 that perhaps they may
bring forth good fruit unto me and I ^ yet have glory in the fruit of my
vineyard > may
5:57 save it be those that are most bitter > which
5:71
 
 
 
 
 
 
and the lord of the
vineyard saith unto him > them
[The
context here is semantically ambiguous: Is the Lord still speaking to the one servant alone (as before) or is he
now speaking to the group of servants? It seems that them is the
correct reading. The most
plausible explanation for why OC first wrote him is that there has always been only a single servant up to this
point and OC is therefore used to writing a singular referent after sayeth / saith, as in 5:22, 27. Another possible explanation is that O itself may have had him, an error due to identical
unstressed pronunciations of him and them.]
5:71 and the season soon cometh > speedily
5:71 ye shall have joy in
the fruit of which I shall lay
up > Ø
5:71 which I shall lay up for myself > unto
5:75
 
 
and blessed art thou
for because that / ye have been diligent
[First thou is written (probably because of
the preceding thou), then crossed out
and replaced by that, which is then
followed by ye have.]
5:76 for behold for a long
time ^ I lay up of the fruit of my vineyard > will
6:1 and now ^
my brethren > behold
6:1 the things
which this ^ Zenos spake > prophet
6:10 ye must go away into the lake of fire and brimstone
>that

B. Initial error produces an obvious infelicity and needs to be corrected

5:46
 
and these I have hope to preserve to have laid up
fruit thereof > had
[The
overall context here requires the past tense.]
5:59 and because of their
goodness and because of the chance of
the branches > change
5:64 for the end draweth night > nigh
5:65
 
 
 
ye shall clear away the
branches which bring forth bitter fruit according to the strength of the good
and the size thereof and ye shall not clear away the bad thereof all at once lest the roots
thereof should/ be too strong for the graft
[Repetition
of the preceding line is crossed out and replaced by correct text.]
5:68 and the branches of the
natural tree will I graft into the natural branches of the natural tree > Ø
5:69
 
and they shall be one
and the bad shall be cast away
[OC
accidentally wrote they (probably
because of the preceding they), then
the bad.]

IV. Subsequent changes

A. Later
editing of P, not in OC’s hand,
yet the changes appear in the 1830 edition; the corrector’s hand here (as well as a few other places in P) has not yet been positively determined

    1. Correcting to match O or editing for consistency

4:11
 
 
wherefore beloved ^ be
reconciled unto him > brethren
[The
phrase beloved brethren is generally
used (4:2, 3, 18; 6:5, 11), yet beloved without brethren occurs in 4:12, 17 as well as originally here in 4:11.]

    2. Changing
tense to get tense agreement between clauses

5:44 and thou beholdest that I also cut down that
which cumbered this spot of ground > beheldest
5:45 and thou beholdest that a part thereof brought forth good fruit
beheldest

B. Changes made by 1830 printer

    1. Minor editing or typhographical errors

5:19
 
come let us go to the
nithermost parts of the vineyard
part
[Cf.
use of plural in 5:14, 38, 39, 52; the singular only occurs once, in 5:13
—a mistake in P?]
6:11
 
 
O then my beloved
brethren repent ye and enter ye in at
the strait gate and continue in the way which is narrow > Ø
[This change may represent an attempt to eliminate the repetitive use of
ye.]

    2. Misinterpretation by printer

5:24
 
behold that I have
nourished ^ also > it
[The
clause-initial direct object that is
ignored; it is inserted as the direct
object.]
6:11
 
 
and enter ye in at the strait gate and continue in the way
which is narrow > straight
[OC’s spelling strait is only accidentally correct since he nearly always spells
both straight and strait as strait. Here OC has
the spelling strait in both O and P.]

    3. Removing possible errors in P

       a) Wrong
preposition

5:29
 
 
 
 
 
 
come let us go down in the vineyard that we may labor again
in the vineyard > into
[If
P is in error here, this may be due to the influence of the following “in the vineyard”. Of course, in can
also have the same sense as into. The question is whether the Book of
Mormon text uses only into when
motion is implied or whether variation between in and into occurs. Except for this occurrence of in, Zenos’s allegory only has into for motion rather than in. Cf. 5:15, which is otherwise the same
as 5:29 except that the word again does not occur: “come let us
go down into the vineyard that we may labor
in the vineyard”.]

       b) Changing
tense to get tense agreement between clauses

5:37
 
thou beheldest that it beginneth to perish
beholdest
[Cf.
above for two unidentified changes in P replacing beholdest with beheldest.]

       c) Wrong
article

5:45
 
 
a part thereof brought
forth good fruit and the part thereof
brought forth wild fruit > a
[Could
O have read the other part? Cf. 5:25: “and only a part of the tree hath brought forth tame fruit and the other part of the tree hath brought forth wild fruit”.]

    4. Removal of dialect pronunciations

       a) nithermost > nethermost

5:13
 
 
and these will I place
in the nithermost part of my vineyard
nethermost
also
5:14, 19, 38, 39, 52
[The i vowel alternative dates back to Old
English.]

       b) conjunction then > than:

5:23 and thou knowest that
this spot of ground was poorer then the first > than
5:48
 
 
for behold they grew
faster then the strength of the roots
thereof > than
[The
reduced vowel pronunciation of than as then occurs as early as the 12th
century. In the second example, OC wrote
thanin O, but then in P.]

C. Changes marked by Joseph Smith in P for the 1837 edition

    1. Printed as such in 1837 (and subsequent) editions

       a) Replacement
of the historical present sayeth / saith by the past tense form said

5:4
 
 
 
 
and he sayeth I will prune it > said
also
5:7, 15, 16, 18, 19, 20, 20, 20, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 29, 31, 34, 35, 41,
48, 49, 50, 51, 57, 71, 75
[Use
of the historical present (saith) is
common in the Greek New Testament as well as the 1611 King James Version
(KJV).]

       b) For consistency, similar removal of historical present for other verbs

5:75 he calleth up his servants and sayeth unto them > calledsaid

       c) Removal
of –th verb forms in plural contexts

5:18 the wild branches hath brought forth tame fruit > have
5:48
 
is not this the cause
that the trees of thy vineyard hath become corrupted > have
[O
also has hath.]
5:75
 
 
for because that ye
have been diligent in laboring with me in my vineyard and have kept my
commandments and hath brought unto me
again the natural fruit > have
[This
last change also makes the text consistent with the two immediately preceding
have.]

       d) Replacement of
th verb forms with –s forms

5:47 who is it that hath corrupted my vineyard > has
5:48
 
 
hath not the branches thereof overcame the roots which are good
has
[This
last example should have been corrected to have; cf. above. In subsequent editions,
haswas changed to have, as noted below. O also has hath.]

       e) Insertion
of preposition

5:47
 
 
 
 
 
I have nourished it and
I have digged ^ it and I have pruned it and I have dunged it > about
[This
makes the text agree with 5:4, 5, 11, 27, 63, 64, 76 in the use of the phrase dig about. O is also probably missing about. There is no
room for about except by supralinear
insertion, and OC nearly always copies insertions into P. Probably O as well as P lack about. This missing preposition may represent a primitive error in O itself. Olive tree culture supports the need for the preposition
about here.]

       f) Replacement of the simple past tense forms of verbs with past participle forms

5:48 and because that the
branches have overcame the roots
thereof > overcome

       g) Removal
of that when preceded by a
conjunction

5:48 and because that the branches have overcame the
roots thereof > Ø
5:75 for because that ye have been diligent in laboring
with me in my vineyard > Ø
6:7 for behold
after that ye have been nourished by
the good word of God > Ø
6:8
 
and will ye
reject all the words which have been spoken concerning Christ after that so many have spoken concerning him

       h) Elimination of conjunction in front of behold

5:48
 
for behold they grew faster then the strength of the roots thereof
> Ø

[Yet for behold is kept elsewhere: 4:9,
10; 5:3, 20, 21, 29, 62, 69, 71, 76; 6:7. O also has for.]

       i) Removal
of thereof after a noun

5:48
 
 
for behold they grew
faster then the strength of the roots thereof > Ø

[But
nowhere else in Jacob 4–6 is this postnominal use of thereof removed: cf. six uses of thereof in 5:18.]

       j) Removal
of repetitive or unnecessary use of that:

5:54
 
that I may preserve the
roots also unto mine own self that when they shall be sufficiently strong that perhaps they may bring forth good
fruit unto me > Ø
6:10 and according to the power of justice for justice cannot be denied
thatye must go away into that lake of fire and brimstone > Ø

       k) Removal
of expression go to it (with change in meaning?)

5:72
 
 
 
and it came to pass
that the servants did go to it and
labor with their mights > Ø
[Is “go to it” a mistake in P for “go to”? Cf. uses of “go
to and” followed by another
verb in 5:49, 61, 62, 71; “go
and” followed by another
verb is found once, in 5:7 (with a more literal sense of go). Perhaps only it should have been deleted in 5:72.]

       l) Replacement
which with who for humans

6:3 and how
cursed are they which shall be cast
out into their own place > who

    2. Missed
by the 1837 edition but occurs corrected in subsequent editions (all in the same place on the same manuscript page of P)

       a) Removal
of conjunction followed by that

5:45 and because that I plucked not the branches
thereof > Ø (1981)

       b) Removal
of –th verb forms in plural contexts

5:46 the trees thereof hath become corrupted > have (1840)

       c) Change
of hope from noun to verb

5:46 and these I had hope to preserve > hoped (1840)

    3. Missed
by 1837 and subsequent editions (also in the same place on the same manuscript
page of P as the preceding three examples)

        Replacement
of –th verb forms with –s forms

5:45 behold they have
overcome the good branch that it hath withered away > has

D. Changes
accidentally missed by Joseph Smith in P for 1837 edition, but should have been
marked (since other examples of these changes were marked); still, these
corrections were made in the 1837 edition

    1. Replacement
of the historical present sayeth / saith by the past tense form said

5:21
 
and it came to pass
that the servant sayeth unto his
master > said
also
5:33, 38

    2. Replacement
of simple past tense forms of verbs with past participle forms

5:48 hath not the branches
thereof overcame the roots which are
good > overcome

E. Changes
made in the 1837 edition not marked by Joseph Smith in P

    1. Attempts
to avoid possible misinterpretation of doctrine

 

4:5
 
 
even as it
was accounted unto Abraham in the wilderness to be obedient unto the commands
of God in offering up his son Isaac which was a similitude of God and his only begotten son > is
[since
the atonement is eternal]
4:11
 
 
 
 
be reconciled unto him through
the atonement of Christ his only begotten son that ye may obtain a resurrection according to the power of the
resurrection which is in Christ and be presented as the first fruits of Christ
unto God > and
[This
may be an attempt to avoid saying that the resurrection is contingent; but
actually the text refers to the resurrection of the first fruits of Christ.]

    2. Probable
error in typesetting

5:20
 
 
 
 
and it came to pass
that they went forth whither the master of
the vineyard
 had hid the natural branches of the tree > Ø
[The
text of Zenos’s allegory always
has “the master of the
vineyard” (5:4, 7, and
here), never “the master” alone, although “his master” does occur (5:16, 21, 34, 48); there are a few
occurrences of “the lord” alone (5:51, 70, 74), but “the lord of the vineyard” is normal.]

    3. Removal
of dialectal forms

5:10
 
and it came to pass
that the servant of the lord of the vineyard done according to the word of the lord of the vineyard > did

F. Changes
made in the 1840 edition

    1. Probable
error in typesetting

5:21
 
for behold it was the
poorest spot in all the land of thy vineyard > the
[The
1840 edition also accidentally repeats the the before land.]

    2. Agreement
with plural

5:48
 
hath not the branches thereof overcame the roots which are good (P,
1830) > has (1837) > have (1840)

G. Later
editing not found in first three editions (most of these changes are not
original with the 1981 edition; many of them are first found in the 1920
edition)

    1. Replacement
of shew by show

4:7 nevertheless
the Lord God sheweth us our weakness
showeth

    2. Misinterpretation
of which

5:1
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
do ye not
remember to have read the words of the prophet Zenos which ^ spake unto the
house of Israel saying > he
[The which here is probably equivalent to
the modern day use of who; that is, “the words of the prophet Zenos who spake unto the house of Israel
saying . . . “. Another possibility is that there was a
loss of the pronoun he in copying P
from O. Consider, for example 2
Kings 15:12 (KJV): “This was
the word of the Lord which he spake unto Jehu, saying . . . “. Less plausible, in my opinion, is the proposal that the
original text represents a literal Hebraism in which the pronoun he is understood but not actually
stated, as in the Hebrew text for 2 Kings 15:12, in which the pronoun he is not actually present, but is
inferred from the verb form alone.]

    3. Replacement
of simple past tense forms of verbs with past participle forms

5:17 and it had sprang forth and began to bear fruit > sprungbegun
5:37 but behold the wild
branches have grown and have overran the roots thereof > overrun

    4. Removal
of –th verb forms in plural contexts

5:18 behold the branches of
the wild tree hath taken hold of the
moisture of the root thereof > have
5:19 and behold if the
natural branches of the tree hath not
brought forth much fruit also > have
5:35 the tree profiteth me
nothing and the roots thereof profiteth me nothing > profit

    5. Replacement
of plural mights by might

5:61
 
 
 
that we may labor
diligently with our mights in the
vineyard > might

also
5:62, 71, 71
[But
this change is not found in 5:72: “and
it came to pass that the servants did go and labor with their
mights”.]

    6. Change
in word order

5:64 and if it so be that these last grafts shall grow
be so

    7. Change
of number in noun to agree with plural verb

5:74
 
 
and they became like
unto one body and the fruit were
equal > fruits
[Here were probably should have been
changed to was rather than fruit to fruits since fruit is
always used in the singular (as a mass noun) in Zenos’s allegory.]

    8. Deletion
of preposition to prevent fragment

6:2
 
 
and in the day that he shall set his hand
again the second time to recover his people is the day yea even the last time
that the servants of the Lord shall go forth in his power to nourish and prune
his vineyard > Ø

    9. Change
of straight to strait

 

6:11 and enter ye in at the strait gate (O, P) > straight (1830, 1837, 1840) > strait (1981)